EDWARD O. JENKINS' SONS,
PRINTERS AND STEREOTYPERS,
20 North William Street, New York.
PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN
IN entering into a definite agreement with Miss
Faithfull, by which the Fowler & Wells Company are authorized to publish
the American edition of her book, three points of importance were
considered: First, that Miss Faithfull was well known in England
and America as a lady of superior practical judgment, who united good
business capabilities to excellent mental culture.
Second, that she had been engaged for many years in works combining
philanthropy and industry for the improvement of the condition of English
women. Over twenty years ago an acquaintance was formed with her by the
late Mr. Samuel R. Wells while he was visiting London, and when she was
absorbed in the multifarious duties of her publishing business, so well
known as "The Victoria Press." It was through a letter of introduction
given by Mr. Richard Cobden that the acquaintance was made, the letter
itself indicating that there were persons of distinction who were
interested in the mission, for mission it was, of Miss Faithfull among the
poor working people of the British metropolis.
A word here may not be out of place with regard to the nature of that
mission, although the reader will expect to find something about it from
the author's own pen. Deeply impressed by the sad condition of tens of
thousands of her sisters who, unmarried and poor, were unable to find
Miss Faithfull established a "Fund for Destitute Gentlewomen," for the
purpose of supplying the means by which young women could be assisted
procuring employment and supporting themselves. The "Victoria Press"
became a part of her plan, and its development into a publication office
considerable extent furnished occupation and the facilities for learning a
most useful trade to many unmarried women and girls. Here she demonstrated
the fact that the English woman who was destitute and dependent only
needed a chance to make her own living in some honourable pursuit; and the
success that attended this benevolent undertaking contributed greatly
toward loosening the bars of convention that had hitherto confronted the
women who were desirous of earning their subsistence.
The third point is that the book is not the work of an observer who has
made a hurried tour through the country, visited the more conspicuous
designated in the common guide-books, and then presumes to write "impressions" of the people and country; but it is the conscientious
opinion of a
woman of matured intelligence, who has seen much of human nature, and has
visited America three times before taking up her pen to note her
from what has been seen and heard. Each time Miss Faithfull came here, she
came with an earnest purpose to study our society, our women, our
industries, that she might learn something of use in her special work. She
was each time among us more in the character of the learner than the
it will be seen that her statements from beginning to end are entirely
free from any tincture of pedantry or egotism. She speaks candidly,
cordial approval wherever she has found matters to her liking, and
expressing as decided dissent or reproof, yet always in kindly terms,
that she deems it expedient to censure.
In the outset of their negotiations with Miss Faithfull, which were made
before the volume was prepared, the publishers believed that Miss
Faithfull had things to say to the American people that would serve a
highly valuable purpose—be welcome and helpful to women in the industrial
callings and out of them, and instructive to society at large, and that in
making a liberal pecuniary advance to the author for the privilege of
publishing the American editions they were warranted by the expectation of
meeting a wide demand that should arise with the announcement of the book
from their press.
Oct. 10, 1884.
IN compliance with the wishes of many kind friends on both sides of the
Atlantic, I have collected in this form various articles, contributed
American tours, to the Victoria Magazine, Lady's Pictorial,
Gazette, and other English and American newspapers; and I have taken the
of adding many fresh records not hitherto published. I do not pretend to
offer any new information about a country respecting which so much has
already written by abler pens than mine, but this addition to the
international literature of the day may still perhaps prove acceptable, as
"the point of view"
taken differs from that of the ordinary traveller.
Throughout my three visits I had one object specially before me, namely,
to supplement the experience gained during twenty years of practical work
England, in regard to the changed position of women in the nineteenth
century, by ascertaining how America is trying to solve the most delicate
problem presented by modern civilization. In the hope that the information
thus obtained may prove useful, I venture to offer this volume to the
American public, and I sincerely trust that no comments in these pages,
upon political matters or social customs, will prove offensive to a
extended to me such generous hospitality, and for which I entertain a
profound and affectionate respect.
19 LEARMONTH TERRACE,
EDINBURGH, October 1,
First Arrival in America—Welcome at Mrs. Laura Curtis Bullard's—A
Presidential Campaign—Personal recollections of Horace Greeley—General
politics—Disinclination of the best people to take part in them—Cincinnati riots in
Reception at Steinway Hall—The Sorosis Club—Mrs. Croly—Miss Mary L.
Booth—Louise Chandler Moulton—Clergywomen—Dr. Mary Putnam-Jacobi—Harper's printing-office—Riverside Press at Cambridge, Mass.—Women
printers and the Victoria Press—Queen Victoria's views on women's
Gladstone on monopolies—Messrs. Young, Ladd & Coffin's manufactory of
Lundborg's perfumes—Mrs. Stanton and Susan B. Anthony—Hon. Gerrit Smith
at Peterboro—Winter travelling in America—Mrs. Parke Godwin and an Art
The President at the White House—Washington etiquette—Caste in
America—Women Lobbyists—Women employed in the Civil Service—Verdict of
Spinner on the female clerks—Lady John Manners and the English notion of
their social position—Draughtswomen in English Engineer
with Senator Sumner on Republicanism and English loyalty to Queen
Railroads, drawing-room cars, sleepers, and hotel cars—Cookery in
restaurants, hotels, and private houses—Chicago—Mrs. Kate Doggett, Mrs.
Jones, General Osborne—The Soldiers' Home at Milwaukee—American affection
A visit to the University of Michigan—President Angel—Andrew White of
Cornell—Professor Coit Tyler—Kansas State University—Chancellor Lippincott—Discussion about co-education—Columbia College—Rev. Dr. Dix and Professor Drisler—Consequences of higher education on health—Views of Frances
Power Cobbe, George MacDonald, Mrs. Joseph Choate, President Barnard—Rise
and progress of the movement in England—Miss Dawes, the first Master
of Arts in the London University—Mrs. Lucy Mitchell.
Vassar College—Professor Maria Mitchell—President Caldwell—Life of the
students—Effect of study upon health—Improvements in the direction of
outdoor amusements between visits in 1873 and 1883—Riding, lawn-tennis, and
boating—Wellesley College and its fire-brigade manned by girls—Mills'
the Vassar of the Pacific Coast—Miss Haskell at Godfrey—Payment of female
teachers in public schools—English Governesses—Colonel Higginson on the
gross injustice of the inequalities existing between the salaries of men
and women teachers in the United States—Kate Field on the difficulties
journalism—Anna Dickinson—The growing taste for plays versus lectures.
The Quaker City—Changes in society—School of Young Lady Potters—New
Century Club—The Mint, and women employed in it—Theatres and English
artists—Silk culture—Mr. George W. Childs, the Ledger, and his
work-people—Wootton—Original manuscripts and autographs—Wait Whitman: his
New York, Boston, Washington, and the West—Mrs. Hannah Smith and the
Boston: its cast wind, culture, and English look—False accusation of
"decadence," but gaps in the aristocracy of letters between first and
visits—Longfellow, James Fields, Professor Agassiz—Asthma and its
remedies—John Greenleaf Whittier—Oliver Wendell Holmes—Mrs. Julia Ward
and the New England Club—Victoria Discussion Society—Evacuation Day in New
York and Forefathers' Day in Boston—Rev. Edward Everett Hale—Visit to
the Boston University with the Dean and Mrs. Talbot—Miss Peabody and the
Kindergarten—The Papyrus Club—Dr. Harriet Hunt—The Bible and the Woman
English and American receptions contrasted—St.
Louis—Absence of gentlemen at afternoon receptions—Innovation at St. Louis—Mrs. Bigelow's "At home"—Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson of Chicago—Illinois women—Judge Bradwell and
his lawyer wife—Dr. and Mrs. Hoggan of London—Incident during a railway
journey—Charlotte Cushman on and off the stage—Compared as a reader with
Fanny Kemble—Mr. Sothern and Miss Cushman at a steamer banquet—The ruse to avoid speech-making—The model town of Pullman—Caboose
travelling in Wisconsin and Minnesota—Cincinnati during the flood of 1883—Governor Noyes—Murat Halstead and Mr. Probasco.
New Year's Day  in Colorado—The Rocky Mountains—Denver—Mrs. Olive
Wright—Greeley—Ralph Meeker—Dynamite Agitators—Colorado
Springs—General Palmer's enterprise—Dr. Solly—President Tenny's picnic in
January—Journey over the Rocky Mountains, through the Grand Canyon of the
Arkansas—Salida—Marshall Pass—Gunnison—Across the desert to Salt Lake
Brigham Young and the "true inwardness of Mormonism"—Inducements to
converts to emigrate to the "promised land"—Polygamy kept out of
poet-laureate, Eliza Snow—Mrs. Emmeline Wells, etc.—Mormon women and
wives—The effects of polygamy—Sermons in the Tabernacle and Sunday
evening ward meetings—Brigham Young and others on the "women's
discontent"—Exclusion of unmarried women from the kingdom of
heaven—Introduction of second wives—The effect of any lengthened visit to
Salt Lake City—War between Mormons and Gentiles—Endowment House, with
its religious dramas, baptisms, and sealings.
The President's Secretary, Mr. George Reynolds—Mr. G. Q. Cannon—A
religious argument after the President's luncheon—The ox-team wagon
across the plains—Mormon amusements, theatres and dances—The effect of
stage-plays on the plural wives—Captain Boyd on the Latter-Day Saints—The
Mormon Bible—The Doctrines and Covenants—"Joseph the Seer's" revelations
from the Lord to his wife Emma—The women's right to the franchise and
their deprivation of dower—Accusations against the Gentiles—Mormon
criminal statistics—The Salt Lake Tribune on "Gulled English
marriages and divorces—General Murray—Mrs. Paddick—The duty of Congress.
American hotel despotism: Hours for meals—The journey across the desert
from Ogden—The disappearance of the Indians and buffaloes from the
tracts—The flight of antelopes—The Sierra-Nevada mountains—San
Francisco—Palace Hotel—Bell-boys and hotel servants generally—China-town
New-Year garb—Cable-cars—Drives to the Cliff House through the Park and to
the Presidio—Wooden houses—Fires and the Fire Brigade—Dr. Hardy's
Foundling Hospital on Golden Gate Avenue.
Strange contrasts afforded—Drinking and total abstinence—Divorces—Fast
sets and earnest reform workers—Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper—Free Kindergar
tens—Mr. Tabor's Art Gallery—Lotta Crabtree's fountain—The Baldwin
Hotel—Mr. Highton—Silk culture—Efforts of Mrs. Hittell and the State Board—Prizes won
at the Philadelphia Exhibition by Californian ladies for the best silk
cocoons raised in the United States—Commercial opportunities of San
Immigration Association—Chinese labour question.
Strawberries in February; roses and geraniums growing in the open air—New
Orleans and Colorado and California contrasted—Oakland and the Ebell
Society—Fresno—An exciting drive through the colonies—Miss Austin's
vineyard—Mr. Miller of the Fresno Republican—Mr. A. B.
Butler—Raisin-making—The Eisen vineyard—Sampling California wines—Family
Emigration and the kind of people wanted—Bee culture—An ostrich ranche.
The orange groves at Los Angeles—The unprecedented rainfall of
1884—Riverside—Pasedena—Mrs. Jennie Carr—Practical work for women in
California—Mrs. Strong's cotton ranche—Mrs. Rogers's 40,000 herd of cattle
in Texas—Domestic servants—Emigration—Mrs. E. L. Blanchard—Openings in
and New Zealand—The Geysers and Mineral Springs—Southern Pacific
Railroad—Glimpses of Arizona and New Mexico—Kansas—Cattle ranches in
Divorce—Journalistic announcements, advertisements, and paragraphs—Two
strange divorces followed by remarriages—Divorces traced by the American
press to the increase of mercenary marriages—Dr. Dwinell's
statistics—Chief-Justice Noah Davis at the Nineteenth Century Club Meeting
on divorce—Mr. Charles Stuart Welles—The Rev. Robert Collyer—The moral
effect of the Divorce Court in England.
Occupations open to women in 1840, when Harriet Martineau visited America,
contrasted with those of today—The servant question—The change effected
in woman's position by the introduction of machinery—English prejudice and
social status notions—Home employments—Ladies' Work Societies and the
Woman's Exchange—Artistic developments in both countries—Mrs. M'Clelland's
mirror painting—Mrs. Fleet's illuminations—New York technical schools and
Cooper Institute—Boston art schools—Mrs. Cameron's photographs—China
painting—Wood engraving, designs for manufacturers, and wall papers—Lustre
painting—Mr. Denny's women tracers in the Dumbarton
ship-yard—Architects—The higher branches of Art—Mrs. Nimmo Morant as an
etcher—American and English actresses—Dramatic reciters—Mrs. Livermore—The
Hon. Mrs. Maberley's dairy—Ladies in business.
A woman switchman—Laundry work—A steamboat captain—Mrs. Maxwell of
—Incomes earned by shorthand writers—Employment afforded by the
type-writer, the telegraph, and the telephone—The manicure—American
disapproval of the employment of women as barmaids—The force of
habit—Objections raised at first against women hair-dressers—Factory
life—American and English operatives contrasted—Miss Jennie Collins of
Boston—Various industries—Tobacco factories—Ladies on
school boards and as poor-law guardians—The condition of the needlewomen
in New York—The late Leonard Montefiore—Hamilton & Co.'s co-operative
shirt-making—Watch-making in the United States—A visit to the National
Elgin Watch Factory—Waltham factory.
The American girl—Oscar Wilde's definition—A group at St. Louis—Girl
graduates—Other types—The liberty accorded to girls—A collegiate's
dignity at the suggestion of a chaperon—English and French
restrictions—America the paradise of married women—The deference paid by
ladies—A report of a women's meeting excites a "Tit for Tat" policy in a
lady reporter—Changed spirit of the press—A skit on a woman's rights
lecture contrasted with the dignified utterances of Mrs. Howe, Mrs.
Stanton, and Mrs. Livermore—Grace Greenwood on "sufferance"—The Queen as a
politician, and a wife and mother—Mr. Woodall's Bill.
Anthony Trollope on English, American, and Australian newspapers—Special
features of American journalism—Its wonderful enterprise—The interviewer—
Mrs. Langtry—Herbert Spencer—Ladies employed on the press—Impersonal
versus personal journalism—Mr. Pulitzer's views in the Pall Mall
Gazette—English and American practices contrasted—Anglo-phobia and
Anglo-mania—The future prospect—Thurlow Weed—Albany—Mrs. Barnes.
The traveller's appreciation of New York after journeys to the
interior—Religious denominations—The growth of Episcopalianism—Church
music and the
gradual introduction of boy choirs—French cooks—Joaquin Miller—Peter
Cooper—Hotels—Cabs and carriage hire—Tiffany's—Gorham silver
factory—Brentano's—The American and Colonial Exchange—Custom-house
officials and the female searcher—The dress question—The theatres,
artists, and dramatists.
Canada—Sleighing—Miss Rye's and Miss Macpherson's homes for English waifs
and strays—Occupations for women—Report of the Montreal Protective
Immigration Society—Educated women versus fine ladies wanted in all our
colonies—Agricultural prospects—The Marquis of Lorne on the Canadian
climate—Lady Gordon-Cathcart's settlement at Wapella—A day at Niagara
Falls—American homes—Dr. Charles Phelps—Departure from