A History of Chartism V.
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FOOTNOTES
 

p.12-1

Place MSS.  27,810 contains copies of this Address.

p.12-2

Edited by his niece, Miss F. D. Cartwright.  Vol. I, p.82.

p.12-3

It should be noted that in April, 1776, a few months before the publication of Cartwright's tract, Wilkes moved a reform resolution in the House of Commons: this was negatived without a division.

p.13-1

Wallas, Life of Francis Place, p. 63.

p.13-2

The Legislative Rights of the Commonalty Vindicated, p.45.

p.14-1

Wyvill Papers, Vol. III, App. 195.

p.14-2

Francis Letters, II, 493; quoted by G. S. Veitch in The Genesis of Parliamentary Reform, p.9.

p.15-1

Address of the Metropolitan Parliamentary Reform Association.

p.15-2

Place MSS.

p.15-3

According to Place MSS. 27,810, fo. 142, the Duke of Richmond was the first President.

p.16

W. E. H. Lecky, A History of England in the Eighteenth Century, Vol. IV, p.311.

p.17-1

Parliamentary History, May 7, 1782.

p.17-2

He had only become an M.P. the previous year.

p.18

Wyvill, Political Papers, Vol. I, pp. 381-383.

p.19-1

G. S. Veitch, The Genesis of Parliamentary Reform, p.112.

p.19-2

Walter Phelps Hall, British Radicalism, 1791-1797, p.75.

p.20-1

C. R. D. Kent, The English Radicals, p. III.

p.20-2

Place MSS. 27,808.

p.21-1

The Wyvill Papers, Vol. III, Appendix, pp. 132-292, contains the complete history of the Friends of the People.

p.21-2

Its original name, as recorded in its first minute book was The Corresponding Society of the unrepresented part of the People of Great Britain.  Place MSS. 27,811, fo. 2.

p.22-1

Place MSS. 27,814, fo. 187.

p.22-2

P.15.

p.23-1

Hardy somewhere asserts that there were 20,000 members.

p.23-2

G. S. Veitch, Genesis of Parliamentary Reform, p.230.

p.23-3

Annual Register, 1792, Part 2, p. 192.

p.23-4

For a full report of the case, see State Trials, Vol. XXIII.

p.24

A Convention the Only Means of Saving Us from Ruin.

p.25-1

C. Cestre, John Thelwall, p.109.

p.25-2

Life of John Thelwall, 1837, p.367.

p.26-1

According to the Annual Register for 1795, prices had been rising steadily during the preceding ten years, and were now at a record.

p.26-2

Annual Register, 1795, p.38.

p.26-3

See William Pitt and the Great War, by Dr. Holland Rose, pp. 282-285.

p.27-1

The Reeves affair was debated in the Commons from November 23 to December 15.

p.27-2

Place MSS. 27,815.

p.28

Place MSS. 27,808 and 27,815.

p.29-1

C. B. R. Kent, The English Radicals, p.157

p.29-2

Sidney and Beatrice Webb, History of Trade Unionism, p.64

p.29-3

I.e. the freeholders of the county.

p.30-1

Life of Major Cartwright, p.327.

p.30-2

Attempting to improve the English language appears to have been the recognized hobby of the early Radicals.  Thelwall tried to write poetry without the use of sibilants; Horne Tooke was, of course, a philologist of some distinction and Burdett was his pupil. Cobbett wrote an English Grammar, etc.

p.31-1

Quoted in William Cobbett, a Biography.  By Edward Smith. Vol. I, p.278.

p.31-2

Wm. Smart, Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century, pp. 94, 95.

p.32-1

Especially well in The Village Labourer 1776-1832, by J. L. and Barbara Hammond.

p.32-2

B. Kirkman Gray, A History of English Philanthropy, P. 256.

p.32-3

In 1812 the price of wheat per quarter rose to 6 10s. and upwards.

p.33-1

Samuel Bamford, Passages in the Life of a Radical, Vol. II, p.11.

p.33-2

J. L. and B. Hammond, The Village Labourer.

p.33-3

S. and B. Webb, English Local Government, Vols. II and III. The Manor and the Borough.

p.33-4

Passages in the Life of a Radical, Vol. II, p.14.

p.34-1

He had married Miss Coutts, whose name will be sufficient.

p.34-2

See Graham Wallas, Life of Francis Place, chap. ii, "Westminster Politics."

p.34-3

The British Museum contains a number of these papers in volume form, as presented by Thomas Cleary, the first secretary, to Joseph Hume in 1854.

p.35-1

Late parliamentary candidate for Bristol; later M.P. for Preston.

p.35-2

Annual Register, 1816, p. 190.

p.35-3

Lord Ellenborough, Lord Chief Justice, resigned in disgust at the triple acquittal of Hone, who was tried for "seditious libel."

p.35-4

Annual Register, 1819, p. 103.

p.36-1

Strictly speaking, the term Radicals only came into general use about this time.  See Harriet Martineau, History of the Peace, Vol, 1, p.292.

p.36-2

Bamford, Passages, Vol. II, p. 141.

p.37-1

Martineau, History of the Peace, Vol. I, p.264.

p.37-2

 P.104.

p.37-3

The Act had come back into operation in 1818.

p.38

No. 27,798.

p.41

There are two excellent books on Owen: Life and Labours of Robert Owen by Lloyd Jones, and Robert Owen by Frank Podmore.

p.42

New Moral World for August 13, 1836, p.335.

p.43-1

Podmore, Life of Robert Owen, Vol. II, p.426.

p.43-2

Ib., quoted from letter in Manchester collection.

p.43-3

It is important to remember that the words Radical and Socialist were not invented in order to make such a contradistinction.  The first use of the word Socialist in the English language appears to be in a signature to a letter in The Poor Man's Guardian, August 24, 1833 ; it appears to have been in use in France a year or two earlier.  Radical is some years older.  The earliest example of its use, supplied by the New English Dictionary, is from an article in the Morning Post, June 17, 1809, and there is another somewhat unsatisfactory reference to its employment in 1802.

p.44

March 2, 1839.

p.47-1

W. J. Linton, Life of Watson, p.21 (1880 edition).

p.47-2

British Museum, Place MSS. 35,150, fo. 224.

p.47-3

W. J. Linton, Memories, p.38.

p.48-1

Place MSS. 27,791, fo. 67-68.

p.48-2

Id. 27,822.

p.48-3

Bain, James Mill, a Biography, p.435.

p.50-1

August 6, 1831.

p.50-2

January 7, 1832.

p.50-3

Place MSS. 27,791, fo. 243.

p.51-1

Place MSS. 27,791, fo. 94.

p.51-2

Id. 27,789, fo. 137.

p.52-1

Place MSS. 27,789, fo. 157.

p.52-2

Id. 27,789, fo. 145.

p.52-3

Id. 27,791, fo. 99.

p.53

27,789-27,797.

p.54-1

Place MSS. 27,789, fo. 136.

p.54-2

Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life. By G. J. Holyoake. Vol. I., p.36.

p.55-1

Life of Thomas Attwood. By C. M. Wakefield. (Printed for private circulation only, 1885.)

p.55-2

Annual Register, 1831, p.297.

p.56

The Village Labourer, 1760-1832, chapters xi and xii.

p.57

Letters of J. S. Mill, vol. I, p.7, October 20-22, 1831.

p.58

The James Watson of the Spa Fields affair (1766-1838) should not be confused with the James Watson (1799-1874) who was arrested during the demonstration of March 21, 1832 (see p.35), or with the other James Watson of Newcastle who attended the 1848 and 1851 Conventions.

p.59-1

For fuller account see Annual Register, 1931, pp. 171-177.

p.59-2

Greville Memoirs, Vol. II, p.214.

p.60-1

From a leaflet in Place MSS. 27,791, fo. 76.

p.60-2

Maxwell's Life of Wellington, p.256.

p.61-1

Vol. I, p.30.

p.61-2

Place MSS. 27,791, January, 7, 1836.

p.61-3

Aug. 17, 1831.

p.63-1

Letter of J. S. Mill, Vol. I, p.7.

p.63-2

Now Cartwright Gardens, near Judd Street, King's Cross.

p.64-1

Saturday, July 23, 1831.

p.64-2

Poor Man's Guardian, July 21, 1832.

p.66-1

Annual Register, 1835, Part 2, p.110.   Ib. p.139.

p.66-2

Life of Henry Hunt, Vol. II, P. 496.

p.67

Poor Man's Guardian, August 18, 1832.

p.68-1

Poor Man's Guardian, September 3, 1831.

p.68-2

Ib., November 5, 1831.

p.68-3

E.g., In the Crisis, July 27, 1833.

p.69-1

Op. cit. p.11.

p.69-2

Ib. p. 13.

p.70-1

Benbow was also the author of The Crimes of the Clergy (1823), a compilation of crimes committed by Protestant priests in the United Kingdom during two centuries, and a pamphlet, A Scourge for the Laureate (1825), an attack upon Southey in reply to a letter by him in the Times of December 13, 1824, attacking Byron.  In the preface to the first of these works, Benbow describes himself as a Christian.  It appears that he had been present at Peterloo.

p.70-2

Bronterre's National Reformer, January 7, 1831.

p.71

Gammage, History of the Chartist Movement, p.17.

p.72-1

Northern Star, April 17, 1841.

p.72-2

Place MSS. 27,821, fo. 22.

p.73

The Crisis, Vol. I, p. 12.

p.74

Webb, History of Trade Unionism, p. 143.

p.76

British Museum, Additional MSS. 37,773.

p.77-1

Fo. 17.

p.77-2

 William Lovett : an Autobiography, p.102.

p.78-1

A copy of this petition is in the British Museum, with the inscription "The Prayer of this Petition was the origin of the People's Charter. W. L." (Lovett). 1838. A. 55(10).

p.78-2

Joseph Hume, Daniel O'Connell, Dr. Bowring, J. T. Leader, Col. Thompson, B. Hawes, W. S. Crawford, and Charles Hindley.

p.79-1

Life and Struggles of William Lovett, p.170.

p.79-2

P.160, 27,835, dated August 2, 1839.

p.81

Lovett is described on his tombstone as "the author of the People's Charter."

p.86-1

Place MSS. 27,816, fo. 430-440.

p.86-2

According to Gammage, 800 was the amount.

p.87-1

Quoted by Lovett from the Temperance Weekly Record in his autobiography, p.173.

p.87-2

Northern Star, February 24, 1838.

p.88

Northern Star, February 17, 1838.  The point of the leading article of the previous week was that the Secret Ballot would be an obnoxious innovation in the actual state of the franchise law.

p.89-1

Northern Star, May 12, 1838.

p.89-2

Ib., July 21, 1838.

p.89-3

Place MSS. 27,821, fo. 5.

p.90

Northern Star, March 31 to April 21, 1838, contains his biography.

p.91

Gammage, History of the Chartist Movement, p.56.

p.92

Cheltenham Free Press, November 5, 1842, quoted from Leeds Times.

p.93

Wakefield, Life of Thomas Attwood, p.305.

p.94-1

Place Collection at the British Museum (Hendon), set 56, Vol. 2, preface to newspaper cuttings.

p.94-2

Northern Star, November 17, 1838.

p.95-1

Wakefield, Life of Attwood, pp.344, 345.

p.95-2

Ib. p.327.

p.95-3

Quoted by Wallas in Life of Francis Place, from MSS. 27,835 (160, b).

p.96-1

Northern Star, August 25, 1838.

p.96-2

Ib., November 17, 1838.

p.97-1

Northern Star, December 15, 1838.

p.97-2

Place MSS. 27,821, fo. 10.

p.97-3

Do. fo. 19.

p.98

Manchester Political Union, 1838, Regulations, etc.

p.99

Northern Star, January 31, 1838.

p.101

Lovett, Life and Struggles, p.201.

p.104-1

Gammage, p.47.

p.104-2

Northern Star, February 10, 1838.

p.104-3

Place MSS. 27,821, fo. 5.

p.106-1

Northern Star, February 9, 1839.

p.106-2

The Charter, February 17, 1839.

p.106-3

Northern Star, March 16 and October 26, 1839, contains the official list. Accounts differ as to the exact number.  Lovett's figure and that given by the official list agree with the number we have given.

p.107-1

Place MSS. 27,821, fo. 143.

p.107-2

Ib. MSS. 27,821.

p.108

The delegate for Nottingham.

p.109-1

Northern Star, March 30, 1839.

p.109-2

Hansard, February 11, 1839, pp. 219-220.

p.109-3

February 16, 1839.

p.109-4

Do.

p.110-1

Northern Star, February 23, 1839.

p.110-2

Ib., April 13, 1839.

p.111-1

Life and Struggles of William Lovett, p. 204

p.111-2

The London Democrat, No. 1, April 7, 1839.

p.112-1

The London Democrat, March 23, 1839.

p.112-2

Ib., April 6, 1839.

p.112-3

Ib., April 27, 1839.

p.112-4

Northern Star, April 27, 1839.

p.113-1

The Charter, May 5, 1839.

p.113-2

The Northern Star, May 11, 1839.

p.113-3

The Charter, May 12, 1839.

p.114-1

Hansard, June 14, 1839, vols. 222-227.

p.114-2

June 22, 1839.

p.116-1

Life and Struggles of William Lovett, pp. 214-215.

p.116-2

Northern Star, May 11, 1839.

p.117

Northern Star, May 18, 1839.

p.118

Northern Star, May 18, 1839.

p.123-1

This appendix does not appear to have been written.J.C.S.

p.123-2

The Girlhood of Queen Victoria, Vol. II, p. 61.

p.124-1

Autobiography of John Bowes, p.212.

p.124-2

These Eighty Years, Vol, I, pp.345-346.

p.125-1

Blackwood's Magazine, February, 1831, p. 185.

p.125-2

Ib., September, 1839, p.303.

p.126-1

Annual Register, 1838, Part II, p.169.

p.126-2

Ib., 1839, p.304.

p.127-1

Gamage, History of the Chartist Movement, p.101.

p.127-2

G. J. Holyoake, Life of J. R. Stephens, p. 165.

p.128-1

Trial of Peter Murray M'Douall.

p.128-2

Life of Charles James Napier. By Lt.-Gen. Sir W. Napier. Vol. II. p. 5.

p.129-1

Life of Charles James Napier. By Lt. -Gen. Sir W. Napier. Vol. II, p.6.

p.129-2

Ib., p.9.

p.129-3

Ib., p.10.

p.130

Life of Charles James Napier.  By Lt.-Gen. Sir W. Napier. Vol. II, p.39.  The Chartists claimed that the number present on this occasion was between 300,000 and 500,000.  According to Napier, there were only 30,000, many of whom were not Chartists. (Vol. II, p.43.)

p.131-1

Early Correspondence of Lord John Russell.  Introduction. Vol. I, p.73. Edited by Rollo Russell.

p.131-2

Recollections and Suggestions, 1873, pp. 145-148.

p.131-3

Published 1832, revised and reprinted 1834.

p.132-1

Sommerville's Conservative Science of Nations, p.213.

p.132-2

Alexander Sommerville (1811-1885) was the son of an East Lothian farm labourer.  He enlisted in the Scots Greys in 1832, and was with his regiment in Birmingham just before the outbreak of the Reform Riots.  The soldiers were ordered to prepare to deal drastically with the mob, who were contemplating a march on London, and Sommerville was among those who protested.  A few weeks later he was court-martialled for a petty breach of discipline and flogged.  Sommerville maintained his belief that his previous action had made him persona ingrata to his officers, and succeeded in obtaining an inquiry into the matter.  The consequent notoriety and hero-worship gave him an inflated idea of his own importance.  With the interval of 1835-7, spent on foreign service, Sommerville henceforth lived in publicity, for publicity, doing journalistic work in London, Dublin, and in Canada, where he died.  He was an anti-Corn Law Radical by profession, and derided both the physical force and the "sacred month" proposals.  A good ideal of his writing was signed "One who has whistled at the Plough."  He was subsequently designated by Cobden in a letter to Bright (November 4, 1849) as a most suitable author for a history of Chartism. (Morley, Life of Cobden, p.519, in one-volume edition.)

p.132-3

The Charter, May 5, 1839.

p.133

William Dorling, Henry Vincent, a Biographical Sketch, p.19.

p.134-1

Acquitted August 7.

p.134-2

Lovett, p.208.

p.136

Annual Register for 1839, p.104; Lovett's Autobiography, p.219; Gammage's History, p.132; Northern Star, July 13, 1839.  Slight Verbal differences appear in all these versions.

p.137-1

Northern Star, August 10, 1839.

p.137-2

Ib., August 31.

p.137-3

G. J. Holyoake, Bygones Worth Remembering, Vol. 1, p.112.

p.137-4

J. MacCabe, Life and Letters of G. J. Holyoake, Vol. I, p.42.

p.137-5

Trial of W. Lovett, p.4.

p.138-1

Gammage, p.149.

p.138-2

Ib., p.179.

p.139-1

Northern Star, July 20, 1839.

p.139-2

Ib., July 27, 1839.

p.139-3

Ib., July 27, 1839.

p.140-1

August 3, 1839.

p.140-2

Strand, opposite St. Clement Dane's Church.  Northern Star, August 10, 1839.

p.140-3

Northern Star, August 24, 1839.

p.141-1

Annual Register, 1839, Part II, pp.22-26.

p.141-2

The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire, p.16.

p.142-1

Gammage, p. 152.

p.142-2

The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire, p.17.

p.142-3

From Particulars of the Trial of Mr. John Frost for High Treason.

p.143-1

Annual Register, 1839, Part II, pp.222-23.

p.143-2

Gammage, pp. 161-162.

p.145

Place tabulates 155 petitions for the reprieve of Frost in Place Collection, set 56, 1840, Vol. H.  W. J. Linton, the engraver, in My Memories, describes (p. 44) his efforts to get a reprieve.  He drafted a petition, and obtained signatures from Birkbeck, Dr. Southwood Smith (the public health reformer), W. J. Fox, Hetherington and Watson.  Carlyle, on the other hand, refused to sign.

p.146-1

Webb, History of Trade Unionism, pp.149-150.

p.146-2

Rough Types of English Life, by J. C. Symons, p.27.

p.146-3

Mines and Quarries, Reports of S. Wales Division, Cd. 8023IV, pp.58, 59.

p.147

Life and Struggles of William Lovett, pp. 208,209.

p.148-1

William Lovett, pp.239, 240.

p.148-2

Northern Star, May 22, 1842, quoted in D. N. B.

p.151

The Book Box scheme of the Fabian Society might be regarded as Lovett's proposal reduced to practical dimensions.

p.152

P.55, Chartism.

p.153-1

Lovett tells us that after he had written this he read, in a life of Pestalozzi, that that educationist had already recommended a somewhat similar contrivance.  Lovett's invention was made quite independently, however.

p.153-2

 Northern Star, September 7, 1840.

p.154-1

Northern Star, November 21, 1840.

p.154-2

September 12, 1840.

p.154-3

January 16, 1841.

p.154-4

 Northern Star, January 2, 1841.

p.154-5

 Ib., January 16, 1841.

p.155-1

Northern Star, May 8, 1841.

p.155-2

May 24, 1840.

p.155-3

Leeds Times, May 23, 1840.

p.155-4

June 20, 1840.

p.156-1

The Free Press, October 31, 1840.

p.156-2

Leeds Times, November 21, 1840.

p.156-3

Northern Star, October 20, 1838.

p.157-1

Leeds Times, March 20, 1841.

p.157-2

April 3, 1841.

p.158-1

O'Connor in The Northern Star, April 25, 1840.

p.158-2

Northern Star, July 18, 1840.

p.158-3

Ib., January 30, 1841.

p.158-4

Ib., January 16, 1841.

p.159-1

Northern Star, August 4, 1840.

p.159-2

Place Collection, set 56, 1841, Vol. 3, fo. 220.

p.159-3

Lovett, Autobiography, p.259.

p.160-1

Beginning with the March 27, 1841, issue.

p.160-2

Northern Star, April 17, 1841.

p.160-3

April 24, 1841.

p.160-4

Northern Star, May 8, 1841.

p.161-1

Lovett, Autobiography, p. 251.

p.161-2

Lovett, Life and Struggles, p.286.

p.161-3

Leeds Times, May 8, 1841.

p.162-1

Lovett, Autobiography, p.252.

p.162-2

Letter from Lovett in the Perth Chronicle, May 6, 1841.

p.163

Place to Collins, February 27, 1841, fo. 259, Vol. I, 1841, set 56, Place Collection.

p.164-1

Executive Journal of the National Charter Association, October 23, 1841.

p.164-2

Northern Star, June 7, 1841.

p.164-3

Ib., September 4, 1841.

p.165-1

Northern Star, October 9, 1841.

p.165-2

Ib., October 16, 1841.

p.165-3

Ib., November 13, 1841.

p.165-4

Ib., December 4, 1841.

p.165-5

Place Collection, set 56, 1841, Vol. III, contains a set of the Executive Journal, with comments.

p.165-6

Northern Star, February 19, 1842.

p.165-7

Lack of means, according to Campbell, was responsible for the failure of the Birmingham Conference in April, 1842.

p.165-8

Northern Star, April 9, 1842.

p.166-1

Northern Star, July 9, 1842.

p.166-2

Northern Star, June 25, 1842.

p.166-3

Leeds Times, January 15, 22, and 29, 1842.

p.167-1

National Association Gazette, April 9, 1842.

p.167-2

Northern Star, January 2, 1841.

p.167-3

The membership was largely duplicate. O'Connor claimed to belong to twenty-eight associations.

p.167-4

Northern Star, May 21, 1842.

p.167-5

Ib., December 12, 1842.

p.168-1

Northern Star, January 7, 1843.

p.168-2

Ib., June 26, 1841.

p.169-1

Letter from O'Brien in The Northern Star, June 19, 1841.

p.169-2

Northern Star, June 26, 1841.

p.169-3

Ib., July 3, 1841.

p.170-1

July 3, 1841.

p.170-2

These letters, with drafts of Place's replies, are in the Place Collection, set 56, 1841, Vol. II.  See also Wallas, Life of Francis Place, pp. 379, 380.

p.170-3

 Northern Star, July 24, 1841.

p.171-1

First printed in The Northern Star, October 16, 1841.

p.171-2

 Northern Star, November 27, 1841.

p.172-1

The Life of Thomas Cooper, p. 149.

p.172-2

 Ib., p. 165.

p.172-3

Appendix (by Cooper) to 1894 edition of Gammage's History of the Chartist Movement.

p.173-1

Dictionary of National Biography.  The story is not contained in the official Memoirs by Henry Richard.

p.173-2

Memoirs of Joseph Sturge, by H. Richard, p.261.

p.174-1

Morning Chronicle, May 25, 1841.

p.174-2

Wallas, Life of Francis Place, p.389.

p.174-3

Spectator, July 17, 1841.

p.175

Life and Struggles of William Lovett, p.260.

p.176

Father of Herbert Spencer.

p.177-1

The Leeds Mercury, January 23, 1841, gives a good account.

p.177-2

An almost verbatim report maybe found in Edward Miall's paper, The Nonconformist, for April 13 and 20, 1842.

p.178

Northern Star, March 5, 1842.

p.179-1

Afterwards Secretary of the National Association.

p.179-2

It turns up again a year or two after its demise as the Metropolitan Parliamentary and Franchise Reform Association.

p.179-3

John Bull, May 28, 1842.

p.180

Nottingham Review, May 20, 1842.

p.181-1

Northern Star, August 6, 1842.

p.181-2

A few months later Walter was unseated on a charge of corruption.  Sturge was offered the seat but refused to accept it, as he had not been elected by a majority.



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