A History of Chartism VI.
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FOOTNOTES
(con't)

p.182

Hansard, Vol, 63, cols. 13-91.

p.186-1

English Chartist Circular, No. 46.

p.186-2

Northern Star, September 29, 1838.

p.186-3

From the Introduction to The Trial of Feargus O'Connor and Fifty-eight others at Lancaster, 1843.

p.186-4

Morley, Gladstone, Vol. I, p.204, Popular Edition.

p.188-1

Malthus, An Essay on Population, Seventh Edition, Book III, chapter vii.

p.188-2

Northern Star, August 13, 1842.

p.189-1

Northern Star, August 13, 1842.

p.189-2

Ib., August 20, 1842.

p.190-1

Spen Valley, Past and Present, p.326.

p.190-2

Ib., p.314.

p.190-3

Sketchley, To-day, July, 1884.

p.191-1

Life of Thomas Cooper, p.209.

p.191-2

Ib., p.211.

p.192

 Northern Star, August 20, 1842.

p.193-1

Northern Star, October 1, 1842.

p.193-2

Annual Register, 1842, Pt. 2, p.163.

p.194

Hansard, 1842, Vol. 62, 907-984.

p.195-1

Gammage, p.242.

p.195-2

British Statesman, November 26, 1842.

p.196

 Gammage, p.243.

p.198-1

Birmingham Journal, December 31, 1842.

p.198-2

Northern Star, January 7, 1843.

p.198-3

See Appendix IL

p.198-4

Hansard, 1843, Vol. 69, 500-530.

p.199-1

Times, February 1, 1844, and Northern Star, February 3, give accounts.

p.199-2

Northern Star, December 28, 1844.

p.199-3

Northern Star, June 7, 1845.

p.200

Webb, History of Trade Unionism, pp.168-177.

p.201-1

G. J. Holyoake, History of the Rochdale Pioneers, pp. 79-87.

p.201-2

Figures taken from the Labour Year Book, 1916.

p.201-3

Northern Star, November 27, 1841.

p.201-4

Ib., December 25, 1842.

p.201-5

Ib., January 1, 1842.

p.202

Exercises, Vol. 6, p.410.

p.203-1

Northern Star, September 9-, 1843.

p.203-2

Ib., September 16, 1843.

p.206-1

Northern Star, November 16, 1844.

p.206-2

Ib., July 26, 1845.

p.208-1

Northern Star, June 7, 1845.

p.208-2

G. J. Holyoake, History of Co-operation, Vol. I, p.305.

p.209

Northern Star, December 20, 1845.

p.212

Fifth Report, p.27.

p.213-1

Fourth Report, pp. 24-36.

p.213-2

Northern Star, June 20, 1846.

p.213-3

Ib., August 18, 1846.

p.216

First Report from the Select Committee on the National Land Company, p.51

p.217-1

Northern Star, August 5, 1844.

p.217-2

National Reformer, April 17, 1847.

p.217-3

Northern Star, July 19, 1845.

p.218-1

Northern Star, October 23, 1847.

p.218-2

Ib., September 11, 1847.

p.218-3

Ib., October 23, 1847.

p.218-4

Ib., April 25, 1840.

p.219-1

Northern Star, December 19, 1846.

p.219-2

Ib., June 12, 1847.

p.219-3

Ib., September 4, 1847.

p.219-4

Ib., November 13, 1847.

p.220-1

Times, July 31, 1847.

p.220-2

Northern Star, August 7, 1847.

p.221-1

Northern Star, August 7, 1847.

p.221-2

Ib., June 24, 1848.

p.222-1

Northern Star, July 13, 1850.

p.222-2

 Ib., July 20, 1850.

p.223-1

Northern Star, August 31, 1850.

p.223-2

Stevens, Life of Wheeler, p. 60.

p.223-3

Northern Star, September 6, 1851.

p.224-1

Morning Advertiser, March 26, 1846.

p.224-2

The Commonweal, July 11, 1846.

p.224-3

National Reformer, October 17, 1846.

p.225-1

Northern Star, October 24, 1846.

p.225-2

National Reformer, January 9, 1847.

p.226-1

National Reformer, February, 20, 1847.

p.226-2

Ib., January 30, 1847.

p.227-1

La Revue de Pologne 1915, Nos. 5, 6, pp.196-199.

p.227-2

H. A. L. Fisher, The Republican Tradition in Europe, p.213.

p.228-1

Weekly Dispatch, June 9, 1844.

p.228-2

Punch, June 8, 1844.

p.228-3

An Address to the People of Canada, with their Reply to the Working Men's Association, u.d.

p.229-1

Northern Star, September 14, 1844.

p.229-2

Lovett and Hetherington were largely responsible for the facts upon which the exposure was based.  Lovett, Life and Struggle, pp. 197, 298.

p.229-3

Northern Star, August 11, 1845.

p.229-4

Northern Star, November 15, 1843.

p.230

Frost, Forty Years' Recollections, p. 125.

p.232

W. J. Linton, Memories, pp. 99, 100.

p.234

Printed in full in The Northern Star, July 25, 1846.

p.235-1

Northern Star, December 11, 1847.

p.235-2

Ib., December 18, 1847.

p.236-1

Engels-Marx, Briefwechsel, Vol. I, p.79.

p.236-2

Northern Star, November 15, 1845.

p.236-3

The Nation, August 15, 1846.

p.238

G. W. M. Reynolds (1844-1879) was at the time of his sudden incursion into the Chartist movement an industrious manufacturer of sensational novels. He was a strong republican and a democrat, but before March 6 had never declared his sympathies with Chartism.

p.239-1

 Times, March 18, 1848.

p.239-2

 Northern Star, March 11, 1848.

p.240

Northern Star, March 25, 1848.

p.241-1

Greville Memoirs, Vol. 6, pp. 158, 159.

p.241-2

Northern Star, April 1, 1848.

p.242-1

Northern Star, April 8, 1848.

p.242-2

The People's Paper, April 16, 1853.

p.245-1

Times, April 10, 1848.

p.245-2

G. Lathom Browne, Wellington, Vol. II, p.297.

p.246-1

Lord Malmesbury's Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, Vol. I, pp. 223 et seq.

p.246-2

Times, April 11, 1848.

p.247-1

Died 1915; the facts are from a letter published in the Times of April 14, 1914.

p.247-2

April 10, 1848.

p.249-1

Letters of Queen Victoria, Vol. II, p. 168.

p.249-2

Quoted in Holyoake's Bygones worth Remembering, chap. vii.

p.251

Hansard, Vol. 98, 284-301. O'Connor, in the course of his speech, is reported, e.g., in The Northern Star of April 15, 1848, to have said "he did not believe he would have any difficulty in obtaining a petition upon the same subject by 10,000,000, or double or treble that number."  It should be pointed out that Hansard reports no such statement, which presumably emanated from a hostile source.

p.252

Northern Star, April 15, 1848.

p.255-1

Life of Thomas Cooper, chap. xxvii.

p.255-2

Forty Years' Recollections, pp. 143-165.

p.256

Hansard, Vol, 98, 1848, 1307-12.

p.258-1

Place Collection, Set 47, 1848, Vol. I, fo. 327.

p.258-2

Lovett, Life and Struggles, p. 349.

p.258-3

P. 360.

p.259

The complete story is to be found in C. D. Collet's History of tile, Taxes on Knowledge, 2 vols, 1899.

p.260

Hansard, 1849, Vol. 106, 1268-1306.

p.262-1

Hansard, Vol. 1112, 1282-84.

p.262-2

Northern Star, July 20, 1850.

p.262-3

Northern Star, August 10, 1850.

p.262-4

Ib., December 21, 1850.

p.263

Northern Star, April 5, 1851.

p.264

Times, May 3, 1851.

p.265

April 26, 1851.

p.266

Reminiscences, Vol, 2, p.261.

p.267-1

Hansard, Vol. 122.

p.267-2

The People's Paper, September 15, 22, 29, and October 6, 1855, contains biography.  See also Reynolds's Newspaper, September 16, 1855.

p.267-3

Northern Star, January 3, 1852.

p.267-4

4 January 10, 1852.

p.268-1

R. G. Gammage, the author of The History of the Chartist Movement, was a self-educated man, who rose from coach-building to be a doctor.  He had taken an energetic but uninfluential part in the Chartist movement since 1842, and was a strong admirer of O'Brien and (until the events recorded above) of Jones.

Dr. R. G. Gammage (ca.1820-1888)

p.268-2

Gammage, History, p.397, etc.

p.269

Northern Star, November 22, 1857.

p.270

People's Paper, March 3, 1853.

p.271

People's Paper, March 11, 1854.

p.272-1

People's Paper, March 10, 1855.

p.272-2

Ib., September 1, 1855.

p.272-3

Ib., March 22, 1856.

p.273

People's Paper, April 5, 1856.

p.274-1

February 14, 1838.  The People's Paper of February 13 gives quite another account, and the week later attacked Reynolds's Paper for its falsehoods.

p.274-2

People's Paper, February 13, 1858.

p.276

Howard Evans, Life of Sir R. Cremer, p.42: B. Wilson, Struggles of an Old Chartist, p.26.  Finlen was one of the first lecturers and agents appointed by the League.

p.277-1

Out of the Reform League there grew, in February, 1866, the London Working Men's Association, the membership of which was largely composed of trade unionists.  The secretary was Robert Hartwell, one of the original members of the original W.M.A. and a delegate to the 1839 Convention, a compositor by trade.  It was Hartwell who first raised the subject of Labour Representation, and organized the first labour candidatures.  He himself stood unsuccessfully at Lambeth and elsewhere, and was virtually ruined by election expenses. (Chapter iii, A. W. Humphrey, A History of Labour Representation.)

p.277-2

Ed.—there are several references to Jones's death elsewhere on theis website that the reader may wish to refer to:

Times obituary, 27 Jan., 1869;

The Last Chartist, by
John Saville;

The Death and Posthumous Life of Ernest Jones, by Dr. Antony Taylor, History Department, Sheffield Hallam University.

p.277-3

B. Wilson, Struggles of an old Chartist, p.20.

p.278-1

Flint, Anti-Theistic Theories, p.510.

p.278-2

Life of Thomas Cooper, p.353.

p.278-3

National Reformer, July 20, 27, 1861.

p.279

P. 83, 1851.

p.280-1

Northern Star, July 7, 1838.

p.280-2

H. A. L. Fisher, The Republican Tradition in Europe, p. 56.

p.281-1

Duncan's Life of Joseph Cowen, p.24.

p.281-2

G. J. Holyoake in Notes and Queries, 1902.

p.282-1

See Menger's Right to the Whole Product of Labour.

p.282-2

The histories of industrial insurance and of building societies in Great Britain have not yet been written.  Their roots cannot be traced to any particular Chartist theory or utterance, but are nevertheless apparently fixed in the Chartist period.  John Shaw, originally an East End undertaker, and the whole group of N.C.A. members specially associated with the Land Company, were, as we have seen, strongly in favour of these schemes for improving the position of the working class.  Dr. Bowkett, a friend of O'Brien, was the author of several works urging the importance of building societies.

p.283

B. T. Hall, Our Fifty Years, p.264.

p.284

Christian Socialism, p.7.

p.285-1

Beatrice Potter (Mrs. Sidney Webb), The Co-operative Movement, pp. 118-125, describes in full the genesis and work of this body.

p.285-2

The British Museum contains a bound volume of prospectuses of such associations, formerly the property of F. J. Furnival, one of the first Christian Socialists (08278 35).

p.286-1

British Museum, Additional MSS. 37,776.

p.286-2

Northern Star, November 6, 1841.

p.286-3

Speech delivered in the Free Trade Hall, Manchester, January 10, 1849: included in Free Trade and other Fundamental Doctrines of the Manchester School, edited by F. W. Hirst, p.296.

p.288-1

Life and Struggles, p.367.

p.288-2

British Museum, Additional MSS. 37,776.

p.289

The Minute Books of the National Association are in the British Museum, Additional MSS. 37,774-5, wrongly described as Vols. II—III of the Minute Books of the Working Men's Association.

p.290

Except at the Universities.

p.293

Northern Liberator, April 28, 1838.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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